Digital Divides & Net Neutrality: Notes from a lecture

As today is the last week before the Scottish referendum which will decide whether Scotland will become an independent country I could not help but begin the lecture with a shout out to this coming monumental date. I find it hard to believe that the world is talking about anything else.

But the real point of today’s class was to talk about digital divides and net neutrality. To begin this I began by explaining how the Internet became this amazing thing it is today. We tend to take it’s coolness for granted because it is so cool (I recognize that this is circular reasoning but that is the way it is often explained).

One of the unexplained reasons the Internet became cool depends on the business model that is used. In the early days we paid for the time we were connected. This pay-as-you-go model is great but it does have a dampening effect. Since you are constantly paying the impetus is to be quick. Being quick means that the content will be light and fast to be usable.

This business model is the same as the telephone model has been for most of it’s history. We paid per minute and by distance. We were taught to be brief and idle chatting was discouraged. This is also because the infrastructure was originally highly wasteful and could only serve one user per line.

If the telephone had developed into a monthly charge instead, we could have seen a great deal more innovation and use of the system we could have created the Internet much much earlier. This counterfactual is not totally strange. The early ideas for the telephone included such oddities as dial-up concerts. Such as the one reported in Scientific American, (February 28, 1891):

In a lecture recently delivered in the Town Hall at Newton, Mass., Mr. Pickernell described the methods employed in the transmission of music by telephone. His remarks were very forcibly illustrated by the reception in the lecture hall of music transmitted over the long distance lines from the telephone building, at No. 18 Cortlandt Street, New York, and our engraving, made from a photograph taken at the time, shows the arrangement of the performers.

Scientific American, February 28, 1891

Scientific American, February 28, 1891

But as we all know this was not the way the telephone evolved. The Internet on the other hand did move in that direction. Rather quickly we moved from dial-up modems to fixed connections. Speed was important – but even more important was the fact that the user never had to worry about the time she was online. Downloading large files, streaming, idle browsing and most all of our online lives stems from the point where we stopped worrying about the cost of access to the Internet.

Another point that needs to be stressed is that we often confuse the Internet, the Web and what we do on our mobile devices. Put very simply the Internet is the cables and servers the infrastructure upon which several applications (such as email, netflix and the Web run upon). What we do on our mobile devices is mostly using apps which run on the Internet (but not necessarily the web).

So while the web which was developed by Tim Berners Lee became huge because he chose to give the system away without trying to patent or close it. It is now shrinking because we are becoming more dependent upon our mobile devices. For the longest time we said “the Internet” when we really meant “the Web” and now we say “the Web” when we really mean “the Internet” (via apps on our devices).

This may seem to be pedantic distinctions but they are important as each of these technologies have different strengths and weaknesses and different affordances and control mechanisms.

Once this was established we looked at this map illustrating:

What you’re looking at is a map of nearly every device that was connected to the internet on August 2. Or, at least, a map of ones that responded to a ping request from John Matherly, an internet cartographer. Motherboard

When we say everybody uses the Internet this is the everybody to which we are referring. The large dark areas are those without this, for us, basic technology. Additionally there are small places with more connectivity than the areas we would normally see as technology dense. The map also raises interesting questions about divisions created by culture and language and the problems of measurement when countries such as China are behind a firewall.

We also looked at an array of charts illustrating OECD statistics on broadband penetration per capita, average monthly subscription price, and average download speeds.

broadbandThe USA has an average broadband penetration among OECD countries but it also has the highest number of total internet subscribers by far seen in absolute numbers.

In order to have some form of consensus for our discussion on the digital divide I put forward this description:

… a gap between those who have ready access to information and communication technology and the skills to make use of those technology and those who do not have the access or skills to use those same technologies within a geographic area, society or community. It is an economic and social inequality between groups of persons.

The factors that are persistently pointed to as being the root causes of the digital divide are

  • Cost (technology and connection)
  • Know-how (how to connect, how to use devices, what to do when something goes wrong, overcoming cultural divides etc)
  • Recognizing the benefit

The latter is very interesting as most users do not need to explain why they benefit but non-users manage to make their lives work without access. It is difficult to demonstrate to non-users that they would benefit from using the technology. Indeed that they would benefit so much that it is worth struggling to overcome the barriers of cost and know-how.

Then we moved the discussion over to the Pew research report African Americans and Technology Use, which showed

African Americans trail whites by seven percentage points when it comes to overall internet use (87% of whites and 80% of blacks are internet users), and by twelve percentage points when it comes to home broadband adoption (74% of whites and 62% of blacks have some sort of broadband connection at home). At the same time, blacks and whites are on more equal footing when it comes to other types of access, especially on mobile platforms.

All things being equal there should be no difference in technology use. And yet there is a gap of seven percentage points. Considering most countries desire to transfer more business and services online this is a worrying number of outsiders. Remember, both groups should have users who don’t see a need for the technology – this gap is not about them.

When it came to smartphone ownership the difference was not significant (53% of whites and 56% of blacks) but I found this interesting taken in conjunction with the earlier numbers. Were some users choosing mobile devices over broadband? What were the consequences of this? Stephanie Chen was interviewed in Salon

“You can’t do your homework on a smartphone; you can’t help your kids with their homework on a smartphone; you can’t write your résumé on a smartphone. You can’t do any of that on a smartphone… As a test, I went through the process and tried to apply for a job at Walmart on a phone. It was an arduous process.”

Once again it is vital to remember that each device has it’s affordances that enable and discourage behavior.

Following this we touched briefly on the concepts of digital natives, digital immigrants and digital tourists. I can only refer back to an earlier rant of mine on the subject:

During the discussions one of the topics that came up was the digital divide which is claimed to exist between young and old (whatever do these epitaphs mean?) and then it was only natural to bring up the horrible term digital natives, digital immigrants and digital turists. All these terms were popularized by Marc Prensky and are completely horrific. And of course very popular. There were voices of reason among the crowd but at the same time the catchy phrase seemed to win over intelligent discussion.

There are several problems with the metaphor, not to mention the built in racism. In most languages, calling someone a native smacks of arrogance, a touch of racism and good old fashioned colonialism.

Who is the native? So who is the native and how does one become one? Obviously the idea here is that the youth of today are all tech-savvy and understand technology while the older generation is good at saying stuff like “I remember when…” and handling analog technology. Seriously what a load of dog doodoo. The fact that we lack common areas of interest is not a digital divide. Young people tend to have different tastes in music, love, hobbies, work, films, books than older people. Even Beethoven’s father probably complained at his sons taste in music.

Are they a group? The young are not a homogeneous group, but then again the question could be put forward if homogeneous groups actually exist at all? Does the Englishman really exist? What is it the natives are supposed to understand? This is the biggest problem with the metaphor. Yes, there are hoards of young folk who can easily send hundreds of text messages per day but does that identify them as digital? Does this mean that they are fundamentally different from those who can hardly use the mobile telephones?

The problem is that the idea of the digital native seems to be that they are (1) comfortable using all digital technology and, (2) understand all digital technology. This is most obviously wrong. The ability to be on Facebook does not prepare you for editing wikipedia, blogging or twitter. The ability to use wikipedia has nothing to do with being popular on twitter. And none of these abilities have anything to do with the ability to use the most of the functions in the simplest word processors.

The understanding of technology, how it works, what it means – in addition to its social, economic and cultural impact is quite often totally lost on these so-called natives. I mean no disrespect (even though saying this usually makes things worse) but being an enthusiastic user has no relation to understanding technology.

Metaphors are supposed to exist to help us understand complex ideas. When they do not fulfill this basic purpose they are useless or worse harmful to our understanding. A misguided metaphor is worse than no metaphor at all. And the concept of digital natives does not aid understanding –  it only creates barriers.

It was then time to deal with net neutrality and in order to do this in a more entertaining manner I showed a part of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Net Neutrality (HBO) 

And finally closed by appealing to them to go and read up on net neutrality, and in particular, check out the website Battle for the Net since there is still time for those who feel it to be important to react and to show politicians that the open net is something ordinary people are passionate about.

Here are the slides I used for this presentation:


The unconnected iphone

Not sure about the source (One FPS) of this but it is interesting

A little birdie says that about 50 percent of Apple Store customers who need to get their iPhones swapped have never plugged them into iTunes after the initial activation and sync. This is a big reason, according to this birdie, for why Apple Store Geniuses are excited about iCloud.

What I find interesting is thinking about what the lack of syncing means? Sure the “Geniuses” are excited about iCloud but my interpretation is different.

The lack of connections between the iPhone and a computer could indicate that many users do not use the phone in its full potential. But they prefer to use the phone for its stand alone features: talking, texting and taking photos. If this is the case then most of these users have bought a phone that is much more sophisticated than it need be. Image is everything?

It also means that the iCloud will not solve the “geniuses” reported problems as the users will still not connect.

Mobiles on planes

Mobile phones are radio transmitters and as such were banned from use in civilian airplanes, for fear such devices could interfere with airplane avionics. So we turned of our phones and stared angrily at those who did not comply – it’s strange how well behaved we are in the air, especially when we are told it was for security purposes. The strange thing is that almost any laptop is packed full of wifi and bluetooth devices but no-one stops us from using a laptop on the plane.

The Telegraph reports that British Airways will be trying out mobile phone technology that will allow passengers to send and receive text messages, emails and access the internet during the flight. British Airways will introduce voice calls if the trails are succesful. I wonder what constitutes a success in this case. British Airways is not the only airline, the Telegraph reports:

Since Emirates introduced the service, on a flight from Dubai to Casablanca, it has begun extending the technology to the rest of its fleet – more than 100 aircraft. So far, 28 planes have been fitted.

Low-cost carrier Ryanair announced last year that it would begin testing the technology – including voice calls – on at least 10 of its aircraft, with the intention of extending the service to its entire fleet.

While the fears surrounding mobile telephones and airplane security seem to have been magically resolved the question remains whether or not we want to be stuck in airline seats while passengers around us invade our privacy and disturbing us speaking loudly about all their crap.

Also, why do only the business class passengers get this service? Is it that we plebs are undeserving or can it be that British Airways is being elitist?

Photographic film and social change

While in Vienna I saw the surprising and nostalgic sight of two tourists helping each other to change a role of film in their camera. The development of film has been superseeded by digital cameras which themselves are losing to mobile phone cameras. Mobile phone cameras are digital cameras but the camera as an artefact is slowly disappearing. Another thing that happened in Vienna was that I browsed a collegues photographs of the art she had seen over the last year all stored in her mobile phone – no need for a camera here.

The demise of photographic film is a fascinating story beginning way back in 1876 when Hurter and Driffield experimetnted with light sensitivity of film. Naturally early photography did not use rolls of film which I have pangs of nostalgia for but the early daguerreotypes used tricky glass plates consisting of polished silver surfaces coated silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor (wikipedia).

Eastman Kodak changed all this in 1885 with the first flexible photographic film. This breakthrough made cameras cheaper, easier to use, lighter to carry and the era of snapshot photography was launched. Now the photographer could easily carry a camera and use it on people who did not have to be standing still. The privacy implications launched a major discussion into the nature of privacy in relation to technology. The seminal article in the privacy field is The Right to Privacy by Warren and Brandeis (1890), is still widely quoted.

The move from the heavy and complex equipment to the small, cheap and portable devices show how changes in base technology affect social change. The ubiquitous holiday snaps are a product of these developments. Now that this phase is going to its grave, being overtaken by digital photography, we see new developments. More photographs are being taken and (maybe) saved but there also seems to be an issue of accessibility and use.

If the pictures are not online do we ever look at them?

Useless self-surveillance for the paranoid

There is a widespread misconception that cameras somehow create safety. This misconception has spread to encompass the idea that surveillance somehow creates safety. This morning while standing in an all too crowded buss to work I was forced to stare at an advert which I first thought was for an optician since it contained a picture of a blond woman smiling while trying on different sunglasses… At first I thought it was odd to be advertising sunglasses in Sweden in December since there is no sun to be bothered by. Should the sun peek out everyone would greet it rather than hide from it, but as usual I digress.

paranoia by katiew (CC by-nc-nd)

The add was for a voluntary mobile phone self-surveillance system.

The banner read (in Swedish, but I translate): Watch over yourself [as in surveillance] with your mobile. The ad then went on to explain that you send a text message with the word “SAFE” to the company who then register your position and follow your movements for 30 minutes. After that time you receive an sms asking if you are safe – to which reply that you are. If no reply comes the company notify your friends, attempts to reach you and notifies the police.

The ad attempts to increase the level of paranoia people feel at the same time attempts to claim that a system such as this will keep you safe from the fears which they themselves promote. Naturally as with all surveillance systems they cannot prevent crime the only thing that surveillance can do is to help clean up the mess after the fact. If you are mugged, beaten, raped, killed…. or any of the other things you fear… this system will be able to tell you were you were.

What the Sufi knew about technology

Before becoming an atheist I looked at many religions and I am still fascinated by the complexities of belief systems. Within Sufism (a mystical form of Islam) I came across a counter-intuitive aphorism which has often proven to be true: Freedom is the absence of choice.

The ability of autonomous individuals to chose stands in the center of most freedom discourses so at first glance the Sufi thought seems to be dead wrong. Lack of choice cannot be a form of freedom. This is of course until you have to pick a new mobile provider.

Yesterday I spent way too much time in the trivial decision of picking a mobile phone service. The method was relatively simple. First I ignored the smaller providers. This is a form of arrogance since it is built on the untested premise that they will not be good enough, but it is also a time saving device since a complete comparison between providers would have taken even longer.

This left three main players. All of them provide a relatively adequate technological base for my needs but the pricing systems vary incredibly.The simplest form of analysis was the cost for calls. But even this can be subdivided into three groups: (1) Calls to other mobiles with the same provider, (2) Calls to other mobiles with other providers, and (3) Calls to land lines. This is also made more nuanced since in addition to the cost for the calls there is the opening cost for each call.

The next unit of analysis is the cost for text messages this is thankfully simple since it offers a straight comparison. This was followed by the costs for international calls since I often call to and from Norway. This last one can be made more complex by analysing whether additional services with other telecom providers can make for a cheaper choice. The final main unit of analysis was the cost of data since I occaissionally (but not too often) rely on my phone as a modem.

This is all wrapped up with a bunch of silly but not insignificant sundry costs like billing expenses, startup costs, add-on costs for various services and so on.

Now all this was just to pick a mobile phone provider. If we were to be serious about our economies we would have to do the same for our energy providers, land line providers, Internet providers, cable tv providers, insurance providers etc etc etc…

So the Sufi were actually on to something… Freedom may actually be the absence of choices.

Personalising technology

At some time or another most of us have given inanimate objects personality traits. It could be as simple as hitting a leg on a table and crying out that the table is malevolent or a complex as naming and talking to objects around us. It’s weird but not so strange.

Part of our relationship with technology entails dressing it up, decorating it perhaps in an attempt to make it more humane, more friendly – but sometimes simply as a way of standing out of the crowd. Big companies have not been slow to catch on. iPods can (could?) be engraved, Nike’s could be custom designed and Mobile telephones can be blinged.

To me this was a recent addition to the mass consumer market. The illusion of personalisation by buying add-ons. The ultimate symbol of this was the ability to switch covers which came with the early Nokia phones. But I was wrong was a part of an older personalisation trend. I realized this yesterday when I came across this telephone cover at the Technical Museum in Stockholm. It’s almost too good. Tacky deluxe!

Photo: Nokia was not the first… by Mathias Klang (CC by-nc)

Click for a large image & admire the detailed retro bling!

The disposable mobile

It might seem strange for a company that makes cheap pens and disposable razors looking around for a new cutting edge (sorry for the bad pun, couldn’t help it!) product to decide to start producing mobile telephones. But this is what BIC® has decided to do. The phone comes with 60 free minutes, a charged battery, and prepaid SIM card installed.

According to the press release:

Available in citrus orange and lime green, with innovative packaging, the BIC® phone will appeal to consumers who like easy-to-use and pay as you go products. It also meets specific phoning requirements, serving as a back-up phone if needed (e.g. a second line when advertising the sale of an apartment, a car … which leaves the main phone line free).

The phone focuses on basic use, in other words sending and receiving calls and SMS. It’s cheap (Suggested retail price: €49 including tax includes 60 minutes talk time) but not intended to be disposable (battery loader included). The prepaid number is valid for 12 months but then needs to be extended.

So the company does not intend the phone to be disposable but the way in which they talk about it and “look and feel” of the packaging and phone – feels very disposable. So this is all we need now, a cheap addition to the pile of plastics, electronics, toxics, batteries and packaging which will be added to the current environmental mess.

WordPress client for iPhone

This snappy little application means that you could blog anywhere anytime… all I need now is an iPhone… Strangely enough I still don’t feel the desire to own one…

Excellent news for bloggers came…when WordPress announced that they’re developing a client application for the iPhone.

The WordPress client for iPhone is available in the App Store and in iTunes.

Mobile Phone Popcorn

Following the recent YouTube films showing popcorn being popped by mobile phones a discussion arose as to whether this was possible. Some argued that they had been able to replicate the films while others cried hoax! Thankfully the Guardian Online conducted the following experiment:

In search of the truth we gathered all the phones in the G2 office, placed some freshly purchased uncooked popcorn in the centre of them and simultaneously dialled them all. The result?

Absolutely nothing.

Which is probably not surprising as the popcorn kernels has to be heated to over 230 centigrade before it pops…